OCAD Studio: Memory Exercises

Memory exercises will help you keep images in your head when you’re drawing and painting from life or a reference. If you are able to remember how something looks for longer, you won’t need to keep looking at your subject so much, giving you more time to draw and paint accurately and expressively

 

These are the materials you will need:

  • Reference image to copy from; simple hand drawn shapes, photo or a printed copy of drawing by another artist etc.
  • Pencil
  • Piece of blank paper
  • Eraser

 

Steps:

  1. Place your reference image (drawing or photo etc.) on a table in a room in your house or studio.
  2. Set up your blank paper, pencil and eraser in another room.
  3. Return to the reference image, look at the image for as long as you like and try to remember the dimensions and relationships of all the lines and shapes. Try to start with the general proportions because these will be easier to remember when you are drawing.
  4. Once you’ve finished looking, go to the room with the blank piece of paper and try to draw what you remember as accurately as you can. Stop when you can’t remember the image clearly anymore.
  5. Go back to the reference image, look again and repeat, until you feel like stopping.
  6. When you’re done, bring the copy back to the reference image and compare them side by side. If you like, you can keep going or you can try again another day with a different reference.

 

Tips:

  • Start with a simple reference, even if it’s just a rectangle or triangle, before choosing more complicated subjects.
  • Memory exercises use a lot of brainpower, so don’t worry if you can’t do them for very long when you first start.
  • You can work from real subjects too, try going outside and looking at a tree or landscape or work from a still life or person indoors.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

OCAD Studio: Measuring Tips and Tools

 

All measurement tools and tricks should be seen as a way to improve your ability to measure by eye. The ultimate goal of any representational artist should be to work mostly, if not exclusively, by eye. This will allow you to be more expressive and efficient with your work. Measuring excessively will hinder the expression in your work.

I recommend only using measurement at the very beginning of a drawing, after that, try to switch to working by eye, and only use measurement to check the accuracy of marks made by eye.

 

Tools

  • Long, straight instrument, such as a knitting needle or paintbrush
  • Plumb Line
  • Folded Paper
  • Ruler

 

Tips

  1. Start with a bounding box – mark the top, bottom, left and rightmost points of your subject faintly. Make sure the relationship between the width and height is accurate.
  2. Slide your thumb along the needle or paintbrush to measure
  3. Close one eye when measuring.
  4. Use non-dominant hand (the hand you don’t hold your pencil or paintbrush with) to avoid changing hands all the time.
  5. Use Plumb Line to check vertical alignments.
  6. Hold your measuring tool sideways to check horizontal alignments.
  7. Make sure you are always the same distance away from your subject and at the same height.
  8. You can place foot markers for yourself and your subject (tape or marks on the floor).
  9. Keep your arm straight at all times to ensure it’s always the same distance away from your eye.
  10. Flick you eye back and forth between your subject and drawing/ painting to check they match.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

OCAD Studio: Introduction to Paint

 

 

All paints are made with two basic components; a binder and a pigment.

A binder is an adhesive liquid that distinguishes one type of paint from another. A binder can be spread by brushing, spraying, knifing or any other means. When left, it will dry to a more or less continuous layer.

Pigments are coloured powders mixed into the binder to give it a specific colour.

A paint is made by mixing a quantity of pigment into a binder. When the paint is applied to a surface and left to dry, the pigment is locked into the binder, leaving a coloured mark. This is the most basic definition of how paint and painting works. There are infinite variations of paint application, layering, production etc. to be discovered from this simple starting point.

Binders

In addition to simply adhering the pigment to the surface of a painting, it is also possible for binders to perform other functions:

  1. If a binder is strong enough, it is possible to work it up to fairly substantial thickness. This is evident in oil and acrylic paint compared with watercolours or tempera. However, most binders perform better when applied in relatively thin films.
  2. Binders also have a visual effect on the pigment suspended within them. If you look at dry pigment compared to the pigment in a binder you will notice that there is an intensification in the colour when the pigment made into a paint.
  3. The amount the colour intensifies depends on what binder it is suspended within. So Ultramarine oil paint looks more intense than Ultramarine watercolour paint. This is due to the relative transparency the binder. The more light that travels through the paint and reflects back, the less intense it will be. Oil is much less transparent than watercolour so it is a lot more intense.

Take a look at the image below to see the difference in colour intensity between dry Ultramarine pigment and Ultramarine oil paint.

These are the ideal requirements for any binder:

  1. Binders should not change colour as they age, as this will affect the colour of the pigments in them. Unfortunately, oil paints yellow and darken over age – if you take a look at the older paintings in a gallery, they are always noticeably darker than newer ones.
  2. Binders should not affect the colour of the pigment directly. This doesn’t happen often, but some acrylic binders will cause certain pigments to bleach (become lighter).
  3. Binders should stay structurally sound as they age, and resist cracking, peeling and flaking. The way that paint is applied combined with the conditions the painting is kept will also have a great impact on cracking and peeling over time.
  4. Once a binder is dried, it shouldn’t be easily dissolved by solvents. Watercolours and are particularly susceptible to damage if water is spilt or poured on them.

Types of Binders

Drying Oils

Cold-Pressed Linseed Oil

Steam-Pressed Linseed Oil

Safflower Oil

Walnut Oil

Waxes (Encaustic)

Gum Arabic (Watercolour)

Emulsion (Egg Tempera)

Synthetic Resins

Acrylic

Alkyd

Pigments

Pigments are small particles of coloured material. The earliest types of pigments used in prehistoric times were found in the earth – minerals that had specific colours. Early artists also used charred wood and bones to make blacks.

From that point onwards, more complex pigments were produced from metal ores and chalk. The next development was to introduce vegetable and animal materials to expand the range of potential colours further.

In 1704 the first man-made pigment, Prussian Blue, was produced, followed by numerous other man-made colours. These became indispensable to modern and contemporary artists. Making much brighter colours affordable for use in artworks.

We usually group pigments into two categories; organic and inorganic.

Inorganic

Earth colours, or natural mineral colours

Processed natural mineral colours

Synthetic mineral colours

Organic

Animal-derived organics

Vegetable-derived organics

Synthetic organics

When using any pigment, it is important to be aware of its properties. Most binders are fairly consistent in texture regardless of pigment (such as acrylic and watercolour) but oil interacts with each pigment in a specific way

As a result, all genuine artist quality oil paints have unique qualities.

That is why It is important to avoid cheaper artist paints (particularly oils) as they are full of additives that make the paints more consistent with one another. This sounds good but in fact, the addition of extra chemical often leads to incorrect mixing and problems with ageing. I would always recommend that you buy the highest quality oil paints you can afford straight away. It is better to limit the range of colours you use rather than buy lots of cheap alternative colours.

Pigment Properties That Apply to Oil

The following properties apply more to oil paints than other binders.

Absorption

Different pigments require a different ratio of oil to powder to form a consistent paint. You will notice that some colours, such as Alizarin Crimson come out a tube in a very oily consistency whereas something like Viridian Green tends to be very dry. Cheaper manufacturers also tend to add an excessive amount of oil to their paints to cut down costs (as making a paint with a higher quantity of pigment is more expensive).

Drying Rate

Certain pigments have a chemical effect on oil, causing it to dry much faster. Anything with Cobalt, for instance, speeds up the drying time of the paint film. Whereas Titanium slows down drying time (so Titanium White dries very slowly).

Pigment Properties that Apply to all Binders

Tinting Strength

You will notice when painting in any medium, that certain colours are much more intense  (saturated) than others. For instance, if you mix Cadmium Red with Yellow Ochre, a large amount of yellow will be transformed by a tiny amount of red. Whereas a tiny amount of yellow mixed into red will have barely any effect at all.

This is called tinting strength, and it’s very important that you are aware of the tinting strength of all the colours you use, either by experimenting with them or researching them online (or in a book). Otherwise, there is a risk that you will ruin a large amount of paint by mixing it incorrectly, which will make your painting harder to complete and leave a big hole in your wallet.

Lightfastness

Another property of all paints is lightfastness, which is the measure of how much a pigment will fade over time when exposed to light. For the sake of future generations admiring your work, it is important to be aware of how ‘permanent’ a colour is. Otherwise it will disappear from your lovely picture after a few hundred years (a lot shorter for watercolours).

Toxicity

The final property we will cover is the most important of all – toxicity. Many pigments used in painting are derived from heavy metals and as such are highly toxic. It is important to avoid handling paints with bare skin, inhaling pigment dust or ingesting paint. All of these acts will introduce hazardous elements into your body. Don’t worry too much though, it’s just a case of being careful when you paint and taking precautions.

Future lessons will cover how painting processes affect the ageing and appearance of a painting.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

OCAD Studio: Shape Exercises

 

 

Shape exercises are a great, quick exercise to improve your observational drawing skills. They will help you to accurately copy shapes when you’re copying from life or a reference.

 

These are the materials you will need:

  • Piece of blank paper
  • Strip of tracing paper
  • Pencil
  • Tape

 

Method:

1) Begin by drawing a series of random shapes down the paper. Once you’ve drawn these shapes, tape the tracing paper on the right-hand side of them.

 

 

2) Starting at the top, try to copy the shape as accurately as possible. You can either copy by eye or you can measure, whatever you prefer.

 

3) Once you’re happy with your copy of the first shape, you can lift up the tracing paper and then place it down over the original.

 

4) You can now check to see how accurate you copy was.

 

5) Repeat the process until you have copied all of the shapes. Using the tracing paper to check your accuracy each time.

 

It’s as simple as that!

You can spend as much or as little time as you like on these. They’re a great little exercise to fill in time. The more you do, the better your drawings will become.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

Task 8 Part 1: The Colour Wheel

Colour theory is a tricky subject for artists. The problems arise as soon as we start putting paint on our palette. What about hues, tones, tertiaries or warm and cool colours? How many colours do we really need? And how can we use the expertise of scientists to inform our practice as artists?

 

Colour is the place where our brain and the universe meet

Paul Klee

 

Colour theory is both the science and art of colour. It explains how humans perceive colour; how colours mix, match or clash; the subliminal (and often cultural) messages colours communicate; and the methods used to replicate colour. This encompasses a multitude of definitions, concepts and design applications – enough to fill several encyclopaedias!

So let’s take it step by step- this is not an exercise just for the primary school classroom! It is fundamental for any artist to truly understand the basic concepts….beyond naming the primary and secondary colours.

This task is to produce your own colour wheel. You can find many colour wheels online to copy from. This not only will help you with the basics of mixing the different hues, but also with seeing the relationships between different colours.

Sir Isaac Newton developed the first circular diagram of colours in 1666. Since then, scientists and artists have studied and designed numerous variations of this concept. Differences of opinion about the validity of one format over another continue to provoke debate. In reality, any colour circle or colour wheel which presents a logically arranged sequence of pure hues has merit.

Here is one example which you can copy for this task:

Primary Colours: Red, yellow and blue
In traditional colour theory (used in paint and pigments), primary colours are the 3 pigment colours that cannot be mixed or formed by any combination of other colours. All other colours are derived from these 3 hues.

Secondary Colours: Green, orange and purple
These are the colours formed by mixing the primary colours.

Tertiary Colours: Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green & yellow-green
These are the colours formed by mixing a primary and a secondary colour. That’s why the hue is a two-word name, such as blue-green, red-violet, and yellow-orange. The name always begins with the primary colour, followed by the secondary colour.

 

When choosing colour schemes for our artwork we can use a colour wheel to help us determine the effect we are wanting to achieve in our work.

Harmony can be defined as a pleasing arrangement of parts, whether it be music, poetry, colour, or even an ice cream sundae. In visual experiences, harmony is something that is pleasing to the eye. It engages the viewer and it creates an inner sense of order, a balance in the visual experience. When something is not harmonious, it’s either boring or chaotic. Harmony can be found by looking at part of the colour wheel.

The human brain rejects what it cannot organise, what it cannot understand. The visual task requires that we present a logical structure. Colour harmony delivers visual interest and a sense of order.

In summary, extreme unity leads to under-stimulation, extreme complexity leads to over-stimulation. Harmony is a dynamic equilibrium. Here are some examples of how to use colour theory…but there are many more to explore in this broad topic!

 

So maybe it is harmony you are wanting to create… this can be found by using the analogous colours of the colour wheel.

Analogous colours are any three colours which are side by side on a 12-part colour wheel, such as yellow-green, yellow, and yellow-orange. Usually one of the three colours predominates. Sometimes these colours are also referred to as Harmonious Colours, which makes sense because they’re almost like tones or steps of colour, similar to musical notes in a single chord.

Designers and interior decorators use adjacent colours quite a bit; they’ll often combine them with one opposite, or complementary colour, for a little punch of intensity.

So that brings us to complementary colours.

Complementary colours are any two colours which are directly opposite each other in the colour wheel, such as red and green and red-purple and yellow-green. There may be several variations of yellow-green in leaves and several variations of red-purple in a flower such as an orchid. These opposing colours create maximum contrast and maximum stability.

How does this apply to artists? Well, just because they’re called complementary doesn’t mean you should necessarily use them right next to each other at full strength. That can be rather garish. Or maybe that is what you want??

This is exactly what artists have done. Friedensreich Hundertwasser used bright, garish colours as it creates movement in his art. Our eyes do not sit comfortable when it is not a harmonious colour scheme, so we are constantly searching. His powerful messages in his art- he was a forerunner of environmental protection- link closely to the ideas behind his choice of colour- a fascinating artist to look further into 🙂

Irinaland Over The Balkans, 1969

Another, who you may know well, is Vincent van Gogh. He used complementary colours regularly to make an impact and draw a viewer’s attention to key elements of a painting. It is clear in one of his most famous paintings:

Starry Night, 1889.

 

So, if you DO want to add some extra punch to your colour scheme, think about including complementary colours somewhere in your artwork – it will help to draw emphasis to your subject. Also, some plein air painters will cover their canvas with red before painting a landscape so that the greens and blues they put on top of it will really jump out.

 

Here is a resource with even more information to support you with this task: Colour Wheel

 

So next time you start a painting, think about what colours will work best with your subject matter and use your colour wheel—because the proper use of colour will always enhance your final artwork.

 

Colour is my day-long obsession, joy and torment

Claude Monet

 

 

Join our Facebook Group for LIVE lessons and friendly art community – see you there 🙂

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

OCAD Studio: Glazing and Scumbling

Both scumbling and glazing are indirect methods of painting, which means that they are applied transparently over a dry layer of paint. They were often used by the old masters because they can make for paintings with great deal of luminosity, depth and lustre without requiring a lot of expensive colourful pigments. The traditional way to use glazes and scumbles was to produce a grisaille monochrome underlayer in browns or greys which would describe the forms of the subjects, before allowing this layer to dry and thinly applying  transparent colours over the top.

Glazing

Glazes are applied by diluting the paint with a medium to make it easier to spread over the surface and leave a thin film of transparent colour. A glaze can be used to change the colour of a paint layer without affecting the drawing or thickness of the paint layer below. As such, they are very useful for adding colour to monochrome underpaintings as well as altering colours in paintings.

For instance, you may be painting a figure wearing a yellow coat and decide you would prefer it to be green. It is possible to achieve this by applying a transparent layer of blue paint over the yellow coat, the blue and yellow layer will mix visually and produce a green. The advantage of taking this approach rather than repainting it in green, is that you will retain the original shape and form of the coat, saving you time and paint.

Another common use of a glaze is to subtly change flesh tones in a figure or portrait. The colours in skin vary from browns to creams to greys to reds with many shifts occurring over the surface of the skin. For instance, cheeks are often more red than the rest of the face, so you may find it helpful to apply a thin layer of red over the cheeks to give a portrait more life and variety.

Glazing can be used extensively when working in a traditional manner. You can quickly produce a complex coloured image by painting a detailed image in monochrome before adding colours with glazes once this underpainting has dried. However, you must make sure you are aware of the glaze will alter the values and temperature of the layers below. If a glaze is a darker value than the layer below it will produce a darker and warmer effect when painted over. Sometimes this can result in unwanted lurid oranges, so it is recommended to experiment with glazing to see how much it can affect colours.

Scumbling

Scumbling is slightly different to glazing: it refers to a lighter colour applied over a darker layer and it usually uses thicker paint rubbed over the surface rather than paint thinned with medium. The result is often more textured (as it only catches the raised portions of the canvas, paper or panel) and cooler. The same effect can be seen when smoke rises from a chimney; when the smoke passes in front of a darker object (like a tree) is looks cool and blue, whereas when it passes in front of a lighter object (like a white cloud) it looks dark yellow.

Conclusion

Most artists use glazing and scumbling at some point when painting, even if they aren’t away that they’re doing it. So now that you know a bit more about the technique, I recommend trying it out and taking notice of how your glazes and scumbles affect your paintings.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

Task 7: Self-Portrait in Charcoal

Drawing self-portraits can be a great way to practice sketching techniques as-let’s face-it-there is no shortage of material when you draw yourself! Sketching or drawing yourself can be a great way to learn a lot about sketching, shading and proportions- this exercise will teach you a lot about art and yourself.

Task 7 comes in 2 parts:

Part 1: Get a tonal black and white photograph to work from

Part 2: Produce a tonal self-portrait using charcoal

 

The following resource will help you get started on this task:

Self Portrait

 

Part 1 allows you to get creative as well as to give yourself a great foundation on which to practice your drawing techniques. Adding meaning to your artwork makes it personal and you connect better with what you are doing.  Have fun getting your photograph just right. Some portraits will be of just the face of the artist, and other portraits will be of the whole body. The artist decides how he wants to portray himself… this is the experimental bit 🙂

Then it is on to Part 2. Everyone thinks they know the proportions of a face, but when you really study the human face, it’s easy to realise that the eyes are not near the top of the head, they are more about half-way between the crown of the head and your chin. See the previous task to learn more about these proportions 🙂

Get the major features first, lightly, to create a foundation so you can add in your details later. This way, if you make a mistake, you can easily erase it and it won’t affect the minute details you will spend more time creating later on.

Bring together the work we have done so far on charcoal techniques and observational skills. Turn the photo upside down to really ‘see’ what is in front of you to get accurate proportions.

When you are done you can ask yourself- does my portrait look exactly like the source photo? Your answer will be, No, and I don’t want it to! This is YOUR representation of the original photo. Remember, you don’t need to make an exact copy of the source, that’s what photocopies are for! Be expressive whilst following simple proportion rules to create a personal and unique work of art.

 

 

Join our Facebook Group for LIVE lessons and friendly art community – see you there 🙂

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

OCAD Studio: Basics of Form

What is Form?

In the context of representational drawing and painting, a form is anything that is 3D in your artwork. It could as simple as a ball, or something as complicated as a human figure.

Form drawings use a combination of light shapes and shadows shapes to create the illusion of an object being 3D. This explanation and accompanying video lesson will introduce how you can go about separating the light shapes and shadow shapes in your drawings, before adding simple halftones.

Light Shapes and Shadow Shapes:

How do you decide what is a light shape and what is a shadow shape?

Light shapes can be found anywhere that the light source is hitting directly. Everything else in your drawing is a shadow shape. There are two types of shadows; cast shadows and form shadows. These two different types of shadows happen for different reasons:

Cast shadows occur when one object in a scene blocks the light source from hitting another object. For instance, when we are standing in direct sunlight we cast a shadow of ourselves onto the ground. This happens because the light from the sun is blocked by our bodies as it travels towards the ground. Cast shadows often have sharper edges than form shadows.

Form shadows are a part of the object; like when the sun is shining on a ball and one-half of the ball is dark and the other side is light. The part of the ball that is in dark is a form shadow.

Halftones:

Halftones are grouped into the lights, so when you begin a drawing you leave them out and just focus on separating the shadows from the lights. Halftones are the in-between values that connect your shadow shapes to your lights shapes. They help to show what kind of form the object is. If a form is round like the sphere below, the halftones will change gradually, whereas a more angular form will have more abrupt halftone changes.

 

Check out the accompanying video lesson and exercise. Let me know if you have any questions.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

Task 6: Portrait Proportions

Hi there,

This week we move onto PORTRAITURE!

 

Ah! Portraiture, portraiture with the thought, the soul of the model in it, that is what I think must come

Vincent Van Gogh

 

If you take the image all at once and dwell on how many details you have to draw and how difficult it will be, trying to tackle drawing a portrait would be intimidating for anyone! You can make the process significantly less daunting by taking it one step at a time.

 

Step one & this week’s task: Portrait Proportions

When drawing, it is easy to let your brain take charge and begin to draw what we think is there instead of going with a fully observational approach, and drawing what we actually see-remember Task 1?? One way to overcome this problem is to draw lines in order to analyse how the features align on the face. Using this technique will help you learn how things like the eyes, hairline, nose, ears, cheekbones, etc. interact with each other.

Draw vertical and diagonal lines to get a sense of how the placement of the nose relates to the placement of the mouth, and chin; how the corner of the eye interacts with the neck and jawline; or the relationship between the eye and the edge of the nose…I will go on to show you how to do this 🙂

Determining the proportions of the head is an important factor when approaching self-portrait drawing. These proportions are generally common to all faces and need to be right in a portrait.

So your task is to follow these rules to sketch out a basic drawing, leaving in all measurement lines, just to showcase these rules in action. Refer to the resource below where there is a much more detailed step-by-step approach to this task. In short, here are some of the rules:

  • The eye line – typically half way between the top of the head and the chin
  • The width of the distance between the eyes – the width of one eye
  • Eye level to the end of the nose – end of the nose half way between the eyes and the chin
  • The centre line of the mouth – typically about half way between the nose and the chin
  • The inside corner of the eyes line up vertically with the edge of the nostrils
  • The centre of the pupils line up vertically with the corners of the mouth

Interesting stuff.  Test your own measurements against these and see how you get on with this sketch! It is the beginning of this section where we are focused on learning to draw portraits 🙂

Resource with a step-by-step guide: portrait proportions

Enjoy! This is tremendously encouraging, to witness as we slowly improve our skills and get better right before our very eyes. After all, that’s what practice is all about, nothing but a beautiful journey of discovering how much we are capable of.

 

Join our Facebook Group for LIVE lessons and friendly art community – see you there 🙂

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART

OCAD Studio: Rhythmic Drawing from Life Part 2

Drawing Project #2

Rhythmic Drawing from Life Part 2

Breaking Down Longer Lines and Finding Forms

Introduction:

This project will help you to approach your work in a more expressive manner. You will learn to produce an artistic interpretation of a simple subject, making use of flowing, expressive lines.

In part 2, you will learn how to use break down the longer flowing lines from part 1 into more complex rhythms and find large and medium forms within the subject.

 

Materials:

  • Your drawing from part 1
  • 2B and B pencils or charcoal
  • Pencil sharpener or a knife and sandpaper block
  • Kneadable eraser
  • Hard Eraser
  • Drawing board (at least A3)
  • A simple still life subject (fruit with leaves, teapot, small curiosities etc. Preferably lit by a single dominant light source.

 

Process:

Step 1

Begin by adding more detail to the outside contour of your drawing, looking for the particular rhythms that break up the longer lines from part 1.

Step 2

Don’t make your lines too regular, always observe the specific difference in the length of the lines that make up the shapes in the subject. In nature, these rhythms are typically complex, which is what makes them so beautiful.

Step 3

As you work on the lines, you can also begin adding larger forms to the drawing by shading in the shadows and the portions of the subject which are generally darker. Make sure to leave a lot of white paper in the lighter sections, otherwise your drawing will start to look too grey.

Step 4

Once the outside contour is complete, you can start adding detail to the shapes inside the subject. At this point you can also start adding medium forms within the larger forms you have already established. Make sure to keep the values of your medium forms linked to the value of the larger forms (so that they look correct in context).

Step 5

You can keep refining the drawing for as long as you like, by adding more detail to your lines or progressively smaller forms and textures.

Check out the accompanying video lesson and exercise. Let me know if you have any questions.

Why not have a go at this and post your artwork for me to see. Maybe I or the community can offer support, encouragement and helpful feedback.  – share your work on TWITTER and INSTAGRAM – POST  using our hashtag #ONLINECOLLEGEART